Short answer: Yes, it does exist.
In case you don’t know what are we talking about, some people say that it doesn’t exist, but other says, it exists, actually, there are even websites similar to OP.GG that determinate if you are on loser queue or not, one of those websites is https://loserqueue.gg, but, what does this means?
Loser queue basically means that after losing one game, or a few games, you’ll be matched with people who have horrible win ratios and/or a lose streak on going. This can be demonstrated a posteriori. After losing a game you probably will lose the next one because your teammates will be special cases of people doing absolutely nothing but flame and die.
Is there a way to avoid the loser queue? Yes, not losing. This sounds specially easy but it’s not always easy, in some normal queue you can also have a Yasuo_Slayer923 in your team or his brother, Yone_Uchiha, players who always are the best but always lose for their team, never, literally never for them. According to them, of course.
So, what can you do if you enter in loser queue? You can stop playing a few days and wait until you are not tilted to try to carry them, but if that doesn’t work, we suggest trying to buy boosting, at least for 1 game. There are websites that offers very good services with players that are already get used to new items and soon, to the new champion too.
You need to take a look to those websites who have years of experiences and good players, not a random eBay post, make sure your account is always on the best hands. Loser queue can be rough to get off it, but with help, it can be done in a second without any issue.